Machining is one of the most complex industries. It must have some technical terms that can be confusing. That’s why we organize such A-K glossary. The L-Z part will be shown in the next article. Let’s learn the first part now.
A Accuracy: A value that is measure by a required method. The accuracy conforms to specific tolerance or standard. Acute angle: An angle that is less than 90 degrees. Alloy: A metal with new properties which is formed by the mixture of two or more metals. Assembly: Parts fitted together to build a new part, complete product, or machine. Axis: An imaginary line describes the rotation or movement of an object during machining. There are X-axis, Y-axis, and Z-axis in most CNC machines. Anodizing: A type of surface finishing which is an oxide layer to protect the object from corrosion. Angle iron: A piece of metal part in an L-shaped. ASE: CAD files. A file extension for 3DS Max ASCII export files from autodesk. Axial hole: A hole that is parallel to the axis of revolution of a turned part, but in no need of concentration.
B Blind hole: A hole in the workpiece that can not be pass through it. Bore: A hole milled through the material. Brazing: Joining metals by the fusion of nonferrous alloys having a melting temperature above 800 degrees F, but below that of the metal being joined. Brine: A saltwater solution for quenching or cooling when heat treating the steel. Brinell hardness: One of the standards of material hardness. A method of testing the hardness of a metal by controlled pressure of a hardened steel ball of a given size. Buff: Polish the part with cloth or fabric wheel. Burnishing: A surface finishing, which is the same as polishing for metal by contact with another harder metal for smooth and glossy surface. Burr: The sharp edges left on the part after machining. Bushing: A sleeve or liner that will reduce friction and wear inside of a hole. Bearing: Rollers and balls placed between moving parts to reduce friction and wear. Bending: The shaping of sheet metal at a predetermined angle. This operation compresses the interior side of the bend and stretches the exterior side.
C Caliper: A device to measure the accurate inside and outside dimension. Center: A point or axis around which anything rotates. Chipping: The process of cutting metal with a cold chisel and hammer. Concentric: Accurately centered or having a common center. Cutting fluid: A liquid used to cool and lubricate the cutting to improve the work surface finish. CAD: Computer- Aided Design. The software creates 2D and 3D digital models. CAM: Computer-Aided Manufacturing. A software that can convert the CAD files to program language allows you to create paths for the cutting process on the CNC machines. Chip size: The size of the metal chips that are created during CNC cutting operations. CMM: Coordinate measuring machine. A measuring device for shape and dimension of object part to a very high degree of accuracy. CNC: Computer numeric control. A machining process, which uses computers to control and monitor the movements of a machine tool, via digital instruction derived from CAD/CAM software. Chamfer: The bevel or angular surface cut on the edge or a corner of a machined part. Cycle time: The total time it takes to produce one part on a machine. CNC milling: Uses rotary cutters to remove material. CNC turning: Uses round bar stock to remove material. Cutting speed: This measure of speed typically gauges the velocity of the method of cutting travels. A common formula for cutting speed is SFM, which stands for surface feet per minute.
D Datum: A reference point on one or more faces, surfaces, or features of a part, from which all other dimensions are calibrated. DWG: A format of CAD files. DXF: A format of CAD files. Deburring: A surface finishing that removes the residues from the upstream machining operation. Depth of cut: Closely related to speed and feed. Measurement of how much material is being removed along one axis. Die: A metal block used to form or stamp out metal parts and used to cut external threads. Die threading: Axial thread-cutting using a multi-edge tool. Durometer: A measurement of material hardness. Drilling: A process in machining which uses a rotating drill bit to penetrate the surface of a workpiece and make a round hole.
E EDM: Electrical Discharge Machining. A moldmaking method that removes the material by high-powered electrical current(sparks). Electrode: A sacrificial conductor, usually of copper, which discharges high-powered electrical current to erode the surface of the part. Eccentric: A circle that does not have a geometric center. Extrusion: A shaped part resulting from forcing a plastic material such as lead, tin. aluminum. zinc., copper, rubber, and so forth. through a die opening.
F Fixture: A custom clamp, vise, or other devices to hold the part steady while machining. Facing: The process of making a flat or smooth surface in a predetermined set height on the material. Feed and speed: An act of moving the material relative to the machine cutter. Expressed in inches per minute or per revolution in inches. Free cut: An additional cut with no advancement of depth. Finishing pass: A final pass with a very thin cut that enables higher accuracy and better surface finish than a rough cut. Flutes: It refers to a cutting surface. A 4-flute endmill has 4 cutting surfaces. Fine blanking: A form of blanking where there is no fracture zone when shearing. This is achieved by compressing the whole part and then an upper and lower punch extracts the blank.
code: A universal numerical control machine tool language that tells the machine what movement to make and speed.
Gauge: A device for measuring or checking the dimensions of the object. Grinding: Shape or remove materials with a powered wheel.
H Hardness: Material’s resistance to deformation or scratching by mechanical indentation or abrasion. It measures how difficult it is for the cutting tool to cut materials. Horizontal machining center: A horizontal machining center is used for milling operations that require a horizontal spindle. Hex: A term used for anything shaped like a hexagon. Helix: A path formed as a point advances uniformly around a cylinder, as the thread on a screw or the flutes on a drill. Heat affected zone: A section of a part whose microstructure and mechanical properties were altered during processing because of heat. Not seen in waterjet cutting, but can occur in laser cutting. High speed machining: A means of using technology to process materials using higher feed rates and higher RPM to provide a more efficient method of tooling.
I IGES: Initial graphics exchange. A common format for exchange CAD data. Insert: A component that is used to join two objects together. ISO certification: A certification used to implement quality standards. ISO 2768: An International standard for tolerance. 2fprototypes conform to the tolerance chart of ISO 2768 strictly.
J Jig: Generally used to guide and hold the workpiece, primarily for accuracy and in production machining. JIT: Also known as "just-in-time" is a term used to describe means used to shorten turnaround time and cut out things that may slow down production.
K Knurl: A decorative gripping surface of straight-line or diagonal design made by uniformly serrated rolls called knurls. Kerf: The width of a cut after being processed.
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