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[Glossary] for Machining L-M
2021.05.13
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Machining is one of the most complex industries. It must have some technical terms that can be confusing. That's why we organize such a glossary. The A-K part will is shown in the previous article. If you wanna check, click here to learn. Now, let's see the following.
 
L
Live tooling: Rotating cutting tools mounted in a lathe or turn mill tool turret for CNC machining.
Lapping: The process of using a soft metal tool and fine abrasive to create a precision finish on a part.
Lathe: A machine tool for shaping metal or plastic material by rotating bar stock (turning).
Layout – To locate and scribe on blank stock the shape and size dimensions required to machine or form the part.
Laser Cutting - Laser cutting uses a resonator to create a beam of light.
 
M

M-code: Machine language for programming auxiliary functions in CNC machine tools. Machinability: The degree of difficulty with which a metal may be machined.
Machining: The process of cutting, shaping, or otherwise changing physical properties about a material. This includes metal cutting, milling, drilling, tapping, and others.
Machinist: A person who is skilled in the operation of machine tools.
Marking: A process that uses pressure to mark the metal piece.
Mesh: A term used to describe how coarse an abrasive is.
 
N
Net shape: The final desired shape of a part; or a shape that does not require additional shaping operations before use.
NC: Numerical Control. The code generated by a CAD/CAM system such as JETCAM Expert would be NC code, used to program a CNC cutting machine.
Nonferrous: Metal containing no iron, such as brass and aluminum.
 
O
Off Center: Not centered; offset, eccentric, or inaccurate.
 
P
Pin gauge: Precision ground, hardened metal pins of known diameter, and tolerance used for measurement.
Pressure die casting: Technique for creating solid parts by injecting molten metal under pressure into the cavity of a die casting mold.
Polishing: Making the surface of a material or part smooth and shiny by rubbing it repeatedly.
Precision machining: The process of machining to a tight tolerance.
Punching: Process of putting holes into a piece of sheet metal using a die and punch.
 
 
Q
Quench: To rapidly cool heated metal in water, oil brine, or air to achieve specific material properties.
 
R
Rockwell standard: An industry-standard method for specifying material hardness. Using letters from A to G, with G being the hardest.
Resistance: A material's toughness against fracture when stressed.
Roughness: The degree of surface irregularities, relatively small distances apart. The lower surface roughness, the more smooth surface.
Rapid prototyping: Convert the CAD files to physical objects by manufacturing way, usually for product tests. 2fprototypes provides kinds of ways for rapid prototyping.
 
S
Spark erosion: Essential to Wire EDM. Method for removing small amounts of metal from a work surface through a series of high-energy discharges of current from a charged electrode within a dielectric or insulating bath.
STP/STEP: An ISO-standard data file format for creating and distributing CAD files.
Subtractive manufacturing: Conventional manufacturing processes where successive amounts of material are removed from a workpiece with cutting, drilling, or grinding tools.
Swiss machining: Swiss Lathes are made specifically to provide precision accuracy down to a few micrometers.
 
T
Tolerance: The allowable amount that the finished part can differ from the specified dimensions.
Thou: A machinist term for a unit of measurement equaling 0.001’’ or a thousandth of an inch.
Tenth: A machinist term for a unit of measurement equaling 0.0001’’ or one ten-thousandth of an inch, NOT to be mistaken with 0.1″ or a tenth of an inch.
Threading: Surface material removal machining process used to create a helical ridge on the metal piece (external threading) or a helical groove (internal threading).
Toolpath: The movement route of the machining tool. Assigned while programming.
 
V
Vernier Calliper: Precise measuring device comprised of opposing jaws that slide apart on a graduated beam to provide accurate measurement of length.
 
W
Workpiece: A common term for parts being machined.
Waterjet cutting: A cutting method in which high-pressured water (ranging up to 60,000 psi or even higher) is combined with fine abrasive to process thin and thick materials with high accuracy.
 
X
X-Axis: The left/right horizontal axis.

Y

Y-Axis: Up/down vertical axis, at right angles to the X-axis. 

Z
Z-Axis: Representing depth, perpendicular to both the X and Y axis.
 
We have explained the relationship between the X, Y, Z axis and introduce what is 3/4/5 axis machining. Click here to learn more.
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